This publication contains the main reflections and analysis gathered during the Seminar «The transition to the new Arab world: a challenge for East and West» held on June 6, 2011, in an attempt to understand what was happening in the Arab world at a very close moment to the onset of what happened. The second part of this paper includes a reassessment of the Arab Spring in the light of the new changes that occurred and the turn that they had taken. Arab Spring